There is a lot of news coverage and discussion about federal estate taxes. However, unless you are in the upper level of the wealthy, they will not have an impact on you but there are some other taxes that can be very extensive, according to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette in “Death and taxes—and taxes and taxes.”
The federal estate tax is a non-event, unless you belong to the upper one percent of wealthy Americans. The federal estate tax is paid based on the value of the assets owned by the decedent at the time of death. It also includes any assets that are controlled by the decedent at the time of death. The first $11.4 million is now excluded from any taxes due for an individual, and $22.8 million for a couple.
Before the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, this exemption was roughly $5 million, so many more people had to pay it. The levels are expected to go back to the pre-2018 amount at the end of 2025, unless the law changes before that time.
This is an important point to remember: the tax laws change, and anytime tax laws change, your estate plan should be reviewed to ensure that it is still going to work the way you intend.
In some states, like Pennsylvania, there are still inheritance taxes. Only six states have inheritance taxes, and only 12 states still have an estate tax. Your estate planning attorney will know what your state’s inheritance and estate taxes are and can help you plan so that your family is not overly burdened when it comes time to pay these taxes.
Inheritance taxes are generally based on the value of the assets owned or controlled by the decedent. It is independent of the obligation to file an income tax return for the estate.
The decedent’s representative, usually the executor, is responsible for filing all state, local and federal income tax returns for the portion of the year in which the decedent was still living.
When a person passes and their last will and testament is admitted to probate, the executor receives an employer identification number (EIN) from the IRS. If the decedent died owning a trust, the trustee must obtain an EIN. Once the EIN is obtained, the IRS sends a letter notifying you of the due date for the income tax return for the estate or the trust. These are known as “fiduciary income tax returns.” They must be filed every year for the year that the estate or trust exists.
Note that the tax returns involve federal capital gains tax and how assets purchased before death will be treated for tax purposes when they are sold after death. Usually these assets are real estate and investments. There are a LOT of taxes to consider, each has a unique due date and there may be ways to pay some taxes that will have an impact on other taxes, depending upon the situation.
The key, and an estate planning attorney can help with this, is to create a plan that takes all the taxes into consideration and plans out a strategy to minimize taxes, ensure that everything is paid on time and prepare for the taxes to be paid.
Reference: Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (March 25, 2019) “Death and taxes—and taxes and taxes”